The Second Coming of UK Industrial Strategy

I have a longish piece in the Winter issue of the US science policy journal “Issues in Science and Technology”, which aims to place our current debates about industrial strategy in the UK in a longer historical context. This is now online here: The Second Coming of UK Industrial Strategy. Here is the introduction to the article:

The United Kingdom dismantled industrial policies in the 1980s; today it must rebuild them to create a social-industrial complex.

Industrial strategy, as a strand of economic management, was killed forever by the turn to market liberalism in the 1980s. At least, that’s how it seemed in the United Kingdom, where the government of Margaret Thatcher regarded industrial strategy as a central part of the failed post-war consensus that its mission was to overturn. The rhetoric was about uncompetitive industries producing poor-quality products, kept afloat by oceans of taxpayers’ cash. The British automobile industry was the leading exhibit, not at all implausibly, for those of us who remember those dreadful vehicles, perhaps most notoriously exemplified by the Austin Allegro.

Meanwhile, such things as the Anglo-French supersonic passenger aircraft Concorde and the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor program (the flagship of the state-controlled and -owned civil nuclear industry) were subjected to serious academic critique and deemed technical successes but economic disasters. They exemplified, it was argued, the outcomes of technical overreach in the absence of market discipline. With these grim examples in mind, over the next three decades the British state consciously withdrew from direct sponsorship of technological innovation.

In this new consensus, which coincided with a rapid shift in the shape of the British economy away from manufacturing and toward services, technological innovation was to be left to the market. The role of the state was to support “basic science,” carried out largely in academic contexts. Rather than an industrial strategy, there was a science policy. This focused on the supply side—given a strong academic research base, a supply of trained people, and some support for technology transfer, good science, it was thought, would translate automatically into economic growth and prosperity.

And yet today, the term industrial strategy has once again become speakable. The current Conservative government has published a white paper—a major policy statement—on industrial strategy, and the opposition Labour Party presses it to go further and faster.

This new mood has been a while developing. It began with the 2007-8 financial crisis. The economic recovery following that crisis has been the slowest in a century; a decade on, with historically low productivity growth, stagnant wage growth, and no change to profound regional economic inequalities, coupled with souring politics and the dislocation of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, many people now sense that the UK economic model is broken.

Given this picture, several questions are worth asking. How did we get here? How have views about industrial strategy and science and innovation policy changed, and to what effect? Going forward, what might a modern UK industrial strategy look like? And what might other industrialized nations experiencing similar political and economic challenges learn from these experiences?

Read the rest of the article here.

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